No is the simple answer. Your licence may be valid for you to drive in the UK but you cannot do CBT without a UK Driver Number. The easiest way round this is to exchange your EU licence for a UK one. Have a look at gov.uk. Once you have passed the bike test and got a full UK bike licence you should be able to exchange it back again in your home country if you want to.
An alternative would be to apply for a UK provisional licence but this could get complicated when some computer catches on that you’ve got two licences!
DVLA can also issue a UK Counterpart Licence so that you can do CBT with your EU licence. This is very complicated and I don’t recommend it at all! Customers who have attempted to get one of these in the past have then had all sorts of hiccups further down the line trying to book Theory and Practical Tests.